MTh (Christian Apologetics)



The degree of Master of Theology (M.Th.) in Christian Apologetics is a post-graduate degree offered by Central India Theological Seminary. The primary purpose of this program is to train Christian leaders to biblically face the growing challenges of the modern pluralistic world. The degree is also a preparatory program for advanced study and research at the doctoral level.


The main purpose of the M.Th. Degree program is:

  1. To train theological graduates in philosophical reflection on the Christian Faith.
  2. To equip the candidates with tools and skills for active and creative confrontation of challenges related to the confession and profession of faith.
  3. To help Christian leaders in the right process of the Cause of Unity of Faith in the Body of Christ.

Admission Requirements

  1. M.Div. or B.D. (II class) or its equivalent degree from a recognized institution.
  2. Proficiency in the English language for critical study and reflection.
  3. A ministerial experience of not less than the aggregate of 12 months over a period of 1-3 years.
  4. A valid medical certificate of fitness for higher studies.
  5. An indication of financial support for undertaking the program.
  6. Duly filled application form with copies of mark sheets, photographs, and recommendation letters from Christian leaders as required (the original mark sheet has to be submitted on admission).

Duration of Study

The M.Th. degree requires two years of full time study as an internal (residential) student in the Seminary. Any exception to this rule should have the prior permission of the Academic Committee failing which the candidate’s registration will be terminated.

Mode of Study

The mode of study shall be modular. Each module is a package of class lectures, discussions, tests, examination, and research work related to the module course.

Course Requirements

  1. A candidate shall be required to pass 10 required courses.
  2. He will also be required to submit a thesis of 30,000 words on a subject approved by the Dean of Academic Studies.


All M.Th. candidates are expected to take a common research methodology course on thesis writing.

The following rules must be observed regarding the preparation of the submission of the thesis:

  1. A candidate shall submit his or her thesis proposal to the Dean for approval immediately after the completion of the sixth module.
  2. A candidate writing the M.Th. thesis is expected to work under the supervision of a qualified member of the staff of Seminary.
  3. The thesis must be printed on one side of an A4 sized paper and bound in stiff covers.
  4. Three copies of the thesis must be submitted to the Dean of Academic Studies not later than March 31st of the Second year of M.Th. studies.
  5. The length of the thesis shall be about 30,000 words.
  6. The thesis should be written in the English language.
  7. The thesis should be the original work of the candidate and must be free of typographical and grammatical errors.
  8. Quotations and references should be acknowledged in footnotes or endnotes and a bibliography of books consulted should be appended to the thesis.
  9. In awarding grades for the thesis, examiners will take into consideration the following points:
  • Accuracy and range of knowledge of the subject as demonstrated by the subject-matter of the thesis.
  • Coherence of the argument.
  • Originality of thought.
  • Presentation (format, printing, etc.).
  1. Abstracts: A candidate shall also submit with the thesis three copies of an abstract of approximately 300 words. The abstract shall be a brief summary of the problem, the methodology followed in the research and the main findings. When a thesis is re-submitted following revision, three copies of a revised abstract shall also be submitted.
  2. Prior permission from the Seminary must be obtained before a writer publishes his/her thesis. When published, the author will be expected to deposit five printed copies to the Seminary with due acknowledgement.

Examination and Evaluation

A student is expected to read assigned books and write reviews, as well as write and pass a written examination (or do a research paper on an approved topic) to prove his accuracy and range of knowledge of the particular course in order to complete it.

  1. Grading and Marks

50% points in each course will be required to pass the examination. The final grading shall be as follows:

First Class Second Class Third Class Failure
A+ (80% and above) B+ (65%) C+ (50%) D (30%)
A (75%) B (60%) C (45%) E (20%)
A- (70%) B- (55%) C- (40%) F (10%)
  1. Withdrawal or Absence from Examinations:

A candidate who withdraws from the examinations or who fails to take the examinations for which he/she has been entered shall forfeit the examination fees.


The total fees for the MTh course will be Rs. 32,000/-. It can be paid in four installments. For day scholars, there will be a rebate of the fees, depending on the facilities they choose to avail of in the campus.


The Convocation of the Seminary is held every year during the FPCGI Annual Convention at Itarsi. Every student who has qualified to receive the M.Th. Degree is expected to attend the Convocation held after the year in which he/she qualified to receive his/her degree in person.


Research Methodology

Faith and Philosophy

Required Courses for the Master of Theology Degree in Christian Apologetics

CAPO01 History of Christian Apologetics

CAPO02 Historical Apologetics

CAPO03 Philosophy of Religion

CAPO04 Epistemological Foundations of Christian

CAPO05 Biblical Apologetics

CAPO06 Christian Identity in a Pluralistic World

CAPO07 Apologetical Theology

CAPO08 Scientific Apologetics

CAPO09 Contextual Apologetics

CAPO10 Apologetics Communication

Course Descriptions

Research Methodology

This is an introductory course to research and writing in the area of apologetics. The course aims to develop and improve skills necessary for advanced research and effective writing. It introduces the student to historical, philosophical, contextual, theological, and literary research methods.

CAPO01 History of Christian Apologetics

The course is an historical introduction to apologetics beginning from the New Testament accounts to the Church Fathers and the various significant works and lives of Christian apologists throughout various periods in the history of Christianity.

Ken Boa, Faith Has its Reasons, Ch.2

Mark Edward, et al. Apologetics is the Roman Empire

James McGregor, Studies in the History of Christian Apologetics

Samir Khalil, et al (Ed), Christian Arab Apologetics during the Abbasid Period

Bernard Ramm, The Apologetic of the Old Testament

Alister McGrath, The Making of Modern German Christology

CAPO02 Historical Apologetics

The course investigates the historical accuracy of the Bible and the historical validity of faith.

CAPO03 Philosophy of Religion

This course is an introduction to the general philosophy of religion and aims at helping the student evaluate the various different views in the areas of epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics of religion. It explores subject areas like the concept of God, religious language, religious experience, near-death experiences, conversion, theodicy, and secularism.

Basil Mitchell, The Philosophy of Religion

Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Religion

  1. Stephen Evans, R. Zachary Manis, Philosophy of Religion

John Hick, Philosophy of Religion, Readings

Michael J. Murray,, An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion

Stuart Brown, Philosophy of Religion: An Introduction

CAPO04 Epistemological Foundations of Christian Apologetics

This course aims to introduce the learner to epistemic foundations of various apologetic approaches. Some of the foundations surveyed are rationalist apologetics, empirical apologetics, evidentialism, fideism, foundationalism, Reformed epistemology, and rational fideism.

Ken Boa, Faith Has its Reasons.

Colin Brown, Philosophy & The Christian Faith

Emil Brunner, Revelation and Reason

Norman L. Geisler, Christian Apologetics

Domenic Marbaniang, Epistemics of Divine Reality

Daniel L. Migliore, Faith Seeking Understanding

Ronal H. Nash, Faith and Reason

Timothy Philips et al, Christian Apoologetics in the Postmodern World, IVP.

Francis A. Schaeffer, Escape From Reason

R.C. Sproul, Classical Apologetics.

Mark B. Woodhouse, A Preface to Philosophy, 5th edn

Diogenes Allen, et al., Philosophy for Understanding Theology

CAPO05 Biblical Apologetics

This course is an introduction to various methods of biblical criticism, theories of scripture, theology of revelation, philosophical hermeneutics, biblical difficulties, and the doctrines of inspiration, infallibility, and inerrancy.

Domenic Marbaniang,Theology of Revelation

Richard N. Soulen, et al. Handbook of Biblical Criticism

Immanuel Tov, Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible

Eldon J. Epp, et al. Studies in the Theory and Method of New Testament Criticism.

Norman Geisler, et al. Defending Inerrancy

Norman Geisler (ed), Inerrancy

Gleason D. Archer, Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties

Norman L. Geisler, et al, Making Sense of Bible Difficulties

CAPO06 Christian Identity in a Pluralistic World

This course examines the essential identity of the Christian in a growingly pluralistic world. It looks at the various approaches in the theology of religions and aims to help the student evaluate Christian missions in the midst of a pluralistic society.

Karl Barth and Emil Brunner, Natural Theology

  1. Allie Frazier, (ed.). Issues in Religion: A Book of Readings.

Ken Gnanakan, Proclaiming Christ in a Pluralistic Context.

Ken Gnanakan, The Pluralistic Predicament

  1. Stanley Jones, Christ at the Round Table.

Kuncheria Pathil, (ed.). Religious Pluralism, Delhi: ISPCK, 1999.

Ebe Sundar Raj, The Confusion Called Conversion.

Domenic Marbaniang, Secularism in India

Don Richardson, Eternity in Their Hearts, California: Regal Books, 1981.

Narendra Singh, A Christian Theology of Religions

CAPO07 Apologetical Theology

This is an apologetical introduction to the various doctrines of Christianity. It surveys major approaches in the area of natural theology and philosophical theology.

Peter Kreeft,, Handbook of Christian Apologetics

Kelly James Clark, Our Knowledge of God

  1. R. Tenant, Philosophical Theology

Marbaniang, The Logic of Faith

Marbaniang, A Dialogue on Trinity

Oxford, The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology

Leo Elders, The Philosophical Theology of St. Thomas Aquinas

Brian Hebblethwaite, The Philosophical Theology of Austin Farer

Cambridge, The Cambridge Companion to Christian Philosophical Theology

CAPO08 Scientific Apologetics

This course is an introduction to the issue of the conflict between science and faith. It deals with topics such as evolutionism and creationism, Genesis flood accounts, and aims to help the learner look at the various questions raised by science regarding Christian beliefs.

Alister McGrath, Dawkin’s Delusion

John Collins, Science and Faith

Henry Morris, Biblical Creationism

Domenic Marbaniang, Philosophy of Science

Bertrand Russel, ABCs of Relativity

Stephen Hawking, Brief History of Time

Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene

None of these Diseases

CAPO09 Contextual Apologetics

This course surveys approaches in apologetical theology in the specific contexts of India, Asia, South America, Africa and other places where contextual meaning plays important role in the manner of communication. It looks at theories of culture and of religion.

Stephen B. Bevans, Models of Contextual Theology

Robin Boyd, Indian Christian Theology

Neal Robinson, Christ in Islam and Christianity

H.M. Vroom, No Other Gods

H.L. Richard, Following Jesus in the Hindu Context

  1. Christopher Earley, et al, Cultural Intelligence
  2. Christopher Earley, et al, CQ: Developing Cultural Intelligence at Work

CAPO10 Apologetics Communication

This course introduces the learner to theories, models, and practice of communication. It aims to develop verbal, non-verbal, and global communication skills in the learner. It looks at the use and limits of media, social media, and other means of communication in modern times. It focuses on subjects like mass communication, public speaking, persuasion, intercultural communication, trans-generational communication, and visual apologetics.

Karl Erik Rosergren, Communication: An Introduction

Karl Barth, Homiletics

Vir Aggarwal, et al, Handbook on Journalism and Mass Communication

Keval J. Kumar, Mass Communication in India

James Louis Lucaites, et al, Contemporary Rhetorical Theory

Michael R. Real, Exploring Media Culture

Michelle Lafevre, Communicating with Children and Young People

Pat Petrie, Communication Skills for Working with Children and Young People

Kenneth L. Smith, et al, Handbook of Visual Communication

Resource Persons:

Dr. Domenic Marbaniang (Religion & Cross-Cultural Studies)

Dr. Beilsy Isaac (Historical Apologetics, Apologetical Theology)

Dr. Paul Valle (Theology of Revival and Conviction)

Prof. Chris Ullman (Creationism and Evolutionism)

Dr. Siga Arles (Theology of Missions, Religious Pluralism, Evangelicalism and Ecumenism, Communication)

Dr. Abey Thomas (Communication, Body Language, Conflict Management)

Prof. Babu V. (Religious Pluralism)